Class Range<E extends Comparable<? super E>>

  • Type Parameters:
    E - the type of range elements, typically a Number subclass or Date.
    All Implemented Interfaces:
    Serializable, Formattable, Checked­Container<E>, Emptiable
    Direct Known Subclasses:
    Number­Range

    public class Range<E extends Comparable<? super E>>
    extends Object
    implements CheckedContainer<E>, Formattable, Emptiable, Serializable
    A set of minimum and maximum values of a certain class, allowing a user to determine if a value of the same class is contained inside the range. The minimum and maximum values do not have to be included in the range, and can be null. If the minimum or maximum values are null, the range is said to be unbounded on that endpoint. If both the minimum and maximum are null, the range is completely unbounded and all values of that class are contained within the range. Null values are always considered exclusive, since iterations over the values will never reach the infinite endpoint.

    The minimal and maximal values (the endpoints) may be inclusive or exclusive. Numeric ranges where both endpoints are inclusive are called closed intervals and are represented by square brackets, for example "[0 … 255]". Numeric ranges where both endpoints are exclusive are called open intervals and are represented by parenthesis, for example "(0 … 256)".

    Type and value of range elements
    To be a member of a Range, the <E> type defining the range must implement the Comparable interface. All argument values given to the methods of this class shall be or contain instances of that <E> type. The type is enforced by parameterized type, but some subclasses may put additional constraints. For example Measurement­Range will additionally checks the units of measurement. Consequently every methods defined in this class may throw an Illegal­Argument­Exception if a given argument does not met some constraint beyond the type.
    Relationship with ISO 19123 definition of range
    The ISO 19123 standard (Coverage geometry and functions) defines the range as the set (either finite or transfinite) of feature attribute values associated by a function (the coverage) with the elements of the coverage domain. In other words, if we see a coverage as a function, then a range is the set of possible return values.

    The characteristics of the spatial domain are defined by the ISO 19123 standard whereas the characteristics of the attribute range are not part of that standard. In Apache SIS, those characteristics are described by the Sample­Dimension class, which may contain one or many Range instances. Consequently this Range class is closely related, but not identical, to the ISO 19123 definition or range.

    Ranges are not necessarily numeric. Numeric and non-numeric ranges can be associated to discrete coverages, while typically only numeric ranges can be associated to continuous coverages.

    Immutability and thread safety
    This class and the Number­Range / Measurement­Range subclasses are immutable, and thus inherently thread-safe. Other subclasses may or may not be immutable, at implementation choice. But implementers are encouraged to make sure that all subclasses remain immutable for more predictable behavior.
    Since:
    0.3
    See Also:
    Range­Format, Range­Set, Serialized Form

    Defined in the sis-utility module

    • Constructor Summary

      Constructors 
      Constructor Description
      Range​(Class<E> elementType, E minValue, boolean isMinIncluded, E maxValue, boolean isMaxIncluded)
      Creates a new range bounded by the given endpoint values.
      Range​(Range<E> range)
      Constructs a range with the same type and the same values than the specified range.
    • Constructor Detail

      • Range

        public Range​(Range<E> range)
        Constructs a range with the same type and the same values than the specified range. This is a copy constructor.
        Parameters:
        range - the range to copy.
      • Range

        public Range​(Class<E> elementType,
                     E minValue,
                     boolean isMinIncluded,
                     E maxValue,
                     boolean isMaxIncluded)
        Creates a new range bounded by the given endpoint values. If the given minimum value is greater than the maximum value, then the range is empty.
        Assertion: This constructor verifies the min­Value and max­Value arguments type if Java assertions are enabled. This verification is not performed in normal execution because theoretically unnecessary unless Java generic types have been tricked.
        Parameters:
        element­Type - the base type of the range elements.
        min­Value - the minimal value, or null if none.
        is­Min­Included - true if the minimal value is inclusive, or false if exclusive.
        max­Value - the maximal value, or null if none.
        is­Max­Included - true if the maximal value is inclusive, or false if exclusive.
    • Method Detail

      • getElementType

        public Class<E> getElementType()
        Returns the base type of elements in this range. This is the type specified at construction time.
        Specified by:
        get­Element­Type in interface Checked­Container<E extends Comparable<? super E>>
        Returns:
        the element type.
      • getMinValue

        public E getMinValue()
        Returns the minimal value, or null if this range has no lower limit. If non-null, the returned value is either inclusive or exclusive depending on the boolean returned by is­Min­Included().
        Returns:
        the minimal value, or null if this range is unbounded on the lower side.
      • isMinIncluded

        public boolean isMinIncluded()
        Returns true if the minimal value is inclusive, or false if exclusive. Note that null values are always considered exclusive.
        Returns:
        true if the minimal value is inclusive, or false if exclusive.
      • getMaxValue

        public E getMaxValue()
        Returns the maximal value, or null if this range has no upper limit. If non-null, the returned value is either inclusive or exclusive depending on the boolean returned by is­Max­Included().
        Returns:
        the maximal value, or null if this range is unbounded on the upper side.
      • isMaxIncluded

        public boolean isMaxIncluded()
        Returns true if the maximal value is inclusive, or false if exclusive. Note that null values are always considered exclusive.
        Returns:
        true if the maximal value is inclusive, or false if exclusive.
      • isEmpty

        public final boolean isEmpty()
        Returns true if this range is empty. A range is empty if the minimum value is greater than the maximum value, or if they are equal while at least one of them is exclusive.
        API note: This method is final because often used by the internal implementation. Making the method final ensures that the other methods behave consistently.
        Specified by:
        is­Empty in interface Emptiable
        Returns:
        true if this range is empty.
      • isBounded

        public boolean isBounded()
        Returns true if this range is both left-bounded and right-bounded. A true return value guarantees that:
        1. both get­Min­Value() and get­Max­Value() will return non-null values;
        2. if minimum and maximum values are numbers, then those numbers are finite.
        Returns:
        whether this range is left- and right-bounded.
        Since:
        1.0
      • contains

        public boolean contains​(E value)
        Returns true if this range contains the given value. A range never contains the null value. This is consistent with the class javadoc stating that null minimum or maximum values are exclusive.
        Parameters:
        value - the value to check for inclusion in this range.
        Returns:
        true if the given value is included in this range.
      • contains

        public boolean contains​(Range<? extends E> range)
        Returns true if the supplied range is fully contained within this range.
        Parameters:
        range - the range to check for inclusion in this range.
        Returns:
        true if the given range is included in this range.
        Throws:
        Illegal­Argument­Exception - if the given range is incompatible, for example because of incommensurable units of measurement.
      • intersects

        public boolean intersects​(Range<? extends E> range)
        Returns true if this range intersects the given range.
        Parameters:
        range - the range to check for intersection with this range.
        Returns:
        true if the given range intersects this range.
        Throws:
        Illegal­Argument­Exception - if the given range is incompatible, for example because of incommensurable units of measurement.
      • intersect

        public Range<E> intersect​(Range<E> range)
        Returns the intersection between this range and the given range.
        Parameters:
        range - the range to intersect.
        Returns:
        the intersection of this range with the given range.
        Throws:
        Illegal­Argument­Exception - if the given range is incompatible, for example because of incommensurable units of measurement.
      • union

        public Range<E> union​(Range<E> range)
        Returns the union of this range with the given range.
        Parameters:
        range - the range to add to this range.
        Returns:
        the union of this range with the given range.
        Throws:
        Illegal­Argument­Exception - if the given range is incompatible, for example because of incommensurable units of measurement.
      • subtract

        public Range<E>[] subtract​(Range<E> range)
        Returns the range of values that are in this range but not in the given range. This method returns an array of length 0, 1 or 2:
        • If the given range contains fully this range, returns an array of length 0.
        • If the given range is in the middle of this range, then the subtraction results in two disjoint ranges which will be returned as two elements in the array.
        • Otherwise returns an array of length 1.
        Parameters:
        range - the range to subtract.
        Returns:
        this range without the given range, as an array of length 0, 1 or 2.
        Throws:
        Illegal­Argument­Exception - if the given range is incompatible, for example because of incommensurable units of measurement.
      • equals

        public boolean equals​(Object object)
        Compares this range with the given object for equality. Two ranges are considered equal if they met the following conditions: Note that this method may return true even if the bounds are not strictly identical. In particular this method returns true if the ranges are empty regardless their minimum and maximum values, and also returns true if the bounds are wrappers for some Float​.Na­N or Double​.Na­N values even if their raw bits pattern are not the same. The later is because Float​.equals(Object) and Double​.equals(Object) consider all NaN values as equal.
        Overrides:
        equals in class Object
        Parameters:
        object - the object to compare with this range for equality.
        Returns:
        true if the given object is equal to this range.
      • hashCode

        public int hashCode()
        Returns a hash code value for this range.
        Overrides:
        hash­Code in class Object
      • toString

        public String toString()
        Returns a unlocalized string representation of this range. This method complies to the format described in the ISO 31-11 standard, except that the minimal and maximal values are separated by the "" character instead than coma. More specifically, the string representation is defined as below:
        • If the range is empty, then this method returns "{}".
        • Otherwise if the minimal value is equals to the maximal value, then the string representation of that value is returned inside braces as in "{value}".
        • Otherwise the string representation of the minimal and maximal values are formatted like "[min … max]" for inclusive endpoints or "(min … max)" for exclusive endpoints, or a mix of both styles. The "" symbol is used in place of min or max for unbounded ranges.
        If this range is a Measurement­Range, then the unit of measurement is appended to the above string representation except for empty ranges.
        Overrides:
        to­String in class Object
        See Also:
        Range­Format, Wikipedia: ISO 31-11
      • formatTo

        public void formatTo​(Formatter formatter,
                             int flags,
                             int width,
                             int precision)
        Formats this range using the provider formatter. This method is invoked when an Range object is formatted using the "%s" conversion specifier of Formatter. Users don't need to invoke this method explicitly.

        If the alternate flags is present (as in "%#s"), then the range will be formatted using the alternate form for exclusive bounds.

        Specified by:
        format­To in interface Formattable
        Parameters:
        formatter - the formatter in which to format this angle.
        flags - Formattable­Flags​.LEFT_JUSTIFY for left alignment, or 0 for right alignment.
        width - minimal number of characters to write, padding with ' ' if necessary.
        precision - maximal number of characters to write, or -1 if no limit.