Enum Class AxesConvention

All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, Comparable<Axes­Convention>, Constable, Axis­Filter

public enum AxesConvention extends Enum<AxesConvention> implements AxisFilter
High-level characteristics about the axes of a coordinate system. This enumeration provides a convenient way to identify some common axes conventions like axis order or range of longitude values. Apache SIS Coordinate System objects can be made compliant to a given convention by calls to their for­Convention(Axes­Convention) method.

The following table summarizes the coordinate system aspects that may be modified by each enum value, with an example of change applied by the enum. Blank cells mean that the property is not changed by the enum value.

Coordinate system properties changed by enum values
Property Example Normalized Display
Axis order (longitude, latitude)
Axis direction (east, north)
Unit of measurement Angular degrees & metres
Range of values [0 … 360]° of longitude

Note on axis order

The axis order is specified by the authority (typically a national agency) defining the Coordinate Reference System (CRS). The order depends on the CRS type and the country defining the CRS. In the case of geographic CRS, the (latitude, longitude) axis order is widely used by geographers and pilotes for centuries. However, software developers tend to consistently use the (x,y) order for every kind of CRS. Those different practices resulted in contradictory definitions of axis order for almost every CRS of kind Geographic­CRS, for some Projected­CRS in the South hemisphere (South Africa, Australia, etc.) and for some polar projections among others.

Recent OGC standards mandate the use of axis order as defined by the authority. Oldest OGC standards used the (x,y) axis order instead, ignoring any authority specification. Many software products still use the old (x,y) axis order, because it is easier to implement. Apache SIS supports both conventions. By default, SIS creates CRS with axis order as defined by the authority. Those CRS are created by calls to the CRS​.for­Code(String) method. The actual axis order can be verified after the CRS creation with System​.out​.println(crs). If (x,y) axis order is wanted for compatibility with older OGC specifications or other software products, CRS forced to "longitude first" axis order can be created using the DISPLAY_ORIENTED or NORMALIZED enumeration value.

Note on range of longitude values

Most geographic CRS have a longitude axis defined in the [-180 … +180]° range. All map projections in Apache SIS are designed to work in that range. This is also the range of Math trigonometric functions like atan2(y,x). However, some data use the [0 … 360]° range instead. A geographic CRS can be shifted to that range of longitude values using the POSITIVE_RANGE enumeration value. The choice of longitude range will impact not only some coordinate conversions, but also the methods that verify the domain of validity (e.g. General­Envelope​.normalize()).
See Also:
  • Enum Constant Details


      public static final AxesConvention NORMALIZED
      Axes order, direction and units of measurement are forced to commonly used predefined values. This convention implies the following changes on a coordinate system: This convention does not normalize longitude values to the [-180 … +180]° range and does not set the prime meridian to Greenwich. Those changes are not applied for avoiding discontinuity in conversions from the non-normalized CRS to the normalized CRS.


      The reason why we do not normalize the range and the prime meridian is because doing so would cause the conversion between old and new coordinate systems to be non-affine for axes having Range­Meaning​.WRAPAROUND. Furthermore, changing the prime meridian would be a datum change rather than a coordinate system change, and datum changes are more difficult to handle by coordinate operation factories.
      See Also:

      public static final AxesConvention DISPLAY_ORIENTED
      Axes are reordered and oriented toward directions commonly used for displaying purpose. Units of measurement are unchanged. This convention can be used for deriving a coordinate system with the (longitude, latitude) or (x,y) axis order. A similar concept appears in the Web Map Services (WMS) 1.3 specification, quoted here:
      6.7.2 Map CS — The usual orientation of the Map CS shall be such that the i axis is parallel to the East-to-West axis of the Layer CRS and increases Eastward, and the j axis is parallel to the North-to-South axis of the Layer CRS and increases Southward. This orientation will not be possible in some cases, as (for example) in an orthographic projection over the South Pole. The convention to be followed is that, wherever possible, East shall be to the right edge and North shall be toward the upper edge of the Map CS.
      The above-cited (i,j) axes are mapped to display right and display down directions respectively. Other kinds of axis are mapped to east and north directions when possible. More specifically, Apache SIS tries to setup the following directions (replacing a direction by its "forward" counterpart when necessary, e.g. SOUTHNORTH) in the order shown below:
      Axis directions and order
      Preferred axis sequences Purpose
      EAST, NORTH, UP, FUTURE Commonly used (x, y, z, t) directions for coordinates.
      DISPLAY_RIGHT, DISPLAY_DOWN Commonly used (x, y) directions for screen devices.
      ROW_POSITIVE, COLUMN_POSITIVE Indices in grids or matrices.

      API notes

      we do not provide a "longitude or x axis first" enumeration value because such criterion is hard to apply to inter-cardinal directions and has no meaning for map projections over a pole. The display oriented enumeration name applies to a wider range of cases, but still have a loosely definition which may be adjusted in future Apache SIS versions. If a more stable definition is needed, consider using RIGHT_HANDED instead since right-handed coordinate systems have a more precise meaning in Apache SIS.

      public static final AxesConvention RIGHT_HANDED
      Axes are ordered for a right-handed coordinate system. Axis directions, ranges or coordinate values and units of measurement are unchanged. In the two-dimensional case, the handedness is defined from the point of view of an observer above the plane of the system.

      Note that a right-handed coordinate system does not guarantee that longitude or x axis will be first in every cases. The most notable exception is the case of (West, North) orientations. The following table lists that case, together with other common axis orientations. The axes orientations implied by this RIGHT_HANDED enum is shown, together with DISPLAY_ORIENTED axes for reference:

      Examples of left-handed and right-handed coordinate systems
      Left-handed Right-handed Display oriented Remarks
      North, East East, North East, North This is the most common case.
      West, North North, West East, North This right-handed system has latitude first.
      South, West West, South East, North Used for the mapping of southern Africa.
      South along 0°,
      South along 90° West
      South along 90° West,
      South along 0°
      (Same as right-handed) Can be used for the mapping of North pole.
      See Also:

      public static final AxesConvention POSITIVE_RANGE
      Axes having a wraparound range meaning are shifted to their ranges of positive values. The units of measurement and range period (difference between maximum and minimum value) are unchanged.


      The most frequent usage of this enum is for shifting longitude values from the [-180 … +180]° range to the [0 … 360]° range. However, this enum could also be used with climatological calendars if their time axis has a wrapround range meaning.

      Note that conversions from an coordinate system using the [-180 … +180]° range to a coordinate system using the [0 … 360]° range may not be affine. For example, the data in the West hemisphere ([-180 … 0]°) may need to move on the right side of the East hemisphere ([180 … 360]°). Some geometries may need to be separated in two parts, and others may need to be merged.

      See Also:
  • Method Details

    • values

      public static AxesConvention[] values()
      Returns an array containing the constants of this enum class, in the order they are declared.
      an array containing the constants of this enum class, in the order they are declared
    • valueOf

      public static AxesConvention valueOf(String name)
      Returns the enum constant of this class with the specified name. The string must match exactly an identifier used to declare an enum constant in this class. (Extraneous whitespace characters are not permitted.)
      name - the name of the enum constant to be returned.
      the enum constant with the specified name
      Illegal­Argument­Exception - if this enum class has no constant with the specified name
      Null­Pointer­Exception - if the argument is null